I am facing the same trouble as mentionned by @sjed, when I use the choice-filter column the label suddenly disappear.
What I am trying to achieve is that after asking the information of househods members, I use the previously answered name as the choices to identify the main respondent of the survey.
Strangely enough, when I look into the data collected the calculate fields are being populated so it looks like an issue of reading correctly the fields in the choice column.
Here are two examples so yo can see what is happening, fell free to test as much as you want. You will see that in the XLSForm the unique difference is that cell J29 is populated with the condition for choice filter.
Without choice filter enabled
Let me know if there is any solution to this issue