Repeats - Grouping recommended/needed?


Hello KoBo experts,
is there a general recommendation to wrap with groups in the context of repeats?
We found the following hint in ODK manual:

Repeats … It is recommended to wrap a <repeat> inside a <group> though strictly speaking not required. …

Can you advice with approbiate example, please. Preferably with referencing between 2 repeats. (See our example in

A <repeat> cannot have a label child element. To display a label it should be wrapped inside a <group>

Different to this, as we can see, in KoBoCollect also repeat can have a label, which is shown.



We have presented articles that explains the use of repeat within our kobotoolbox support page. Could you please explain in detail the specific issue that you are experiencing.

Could you explain in detail what the issue is here. This will help us be able to better support you.



Dear Stephane,
thanks for offering support.
Working with repeat (e.g. for individual questions for each household member on education) we have 3 design options:

  1. begin repeat
    … questions
    end repeat
  2. begin group
    begin repeat
    … questions
    end repeat
    end group
  3. begin repeat
    begin group
    … questions
    end group
    end repeat

Besides the basics of using repeat and group (which we know), we would like to know, if there is best practice recommendation, which option is the better, esp. for referencing of values/variables from a previous repeat (like HH members roster) and for later export to SPSS. See also my citations from ODK manual, please.
We are using KoBoCollect, based on XLSForm, on Android smartphones.
Kind regards